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Грамматика английского языка в таблицах

Материал содержит в себе грамматические правила на разные темы.
06.03.2014

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Sequence of tenses 

1

Present Indefinite

Past Indefinite

2

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

3

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

4

Past Indefinite

Past Perfect

5

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

6

Past Perfect

Past Perfect

7

Future Indefinite

Future - in the Past

Conditional sentences

Real

Structure

Fut.Sim.+ if +Pr.Sim

If+Pr.Sim + Fut.Sim.

Example

I'll go to the cinema,

if I am not busy

If I am not busy,

I'll go to the cinema

Expresses

Real situation and its result

Unreal

Structure

Fut-in the P. + if + Past Sim.

If + Past Sim. + Fut - in the P.

Example

I would travel all over the world, if I had much money

Unreal

Unreal situation and its result

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Sequence of tenses (Шақтардың қиысуы)





1

Present Indefinite

Past Indefinite

2

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

3

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

4

Past Indefinite

Past Perfect

5

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

6

Past Perfect

Past Perfect

7

Future Indefinite

Future - in the Past


Direct Speech

Indirect Speech


Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

now

then

next week

the next week

the following week

today

that day

last week

the previous week

tomorrow

the next day

the following day

last year

the year before

the day after tomorrow

two days later

here

there

yesterday

the day before

the previous day

this

that

the day before yesterday

two days before

these

those



ago

before


Conditional sentences



Structure

Example

Expresses

Real


Fut.Sim.+ if +Pr.Sim


If+Pr.Sim + Fut.Sim.


I'll go to the cinema,

if I am not busy

If I am not busy,

I'll go to the cinema

Real situation and its result





Unreal


Fut-in the P.+if+Past Sim.


If+Past Sim. +Fut-in the P.


I would travel all over the world, if I had much money


Unreal situation and its result


12

Rules of reading


Vowels

I type

(open)

II type

(closed)

III type

(V+r)

IV type

(V+r+V)

Aa [ei]

[ei] plate

[æ] bag

[a:] car

[εә] hare

Oo [ou]

[ou] pose

[o] box

[o:] fork

[o:] more

Ee [i:]

[i:] tree

[e] ten

[ә:] her

[iә] here

Ii [ai]

[ai] nine

[I] six

[ә:] girl

[aiә] fire

Yy [ai]

[ai] my

[I] gym

[ә:] byrd

[іә] tyre

Uu [ju:]

[ju:] pupil

[^] bus

[ә:] turn

[juә] pure


Spain

ai

[ei]


oo+k

[u]

Book

Day

ay


oo

[u:]

Foot

August

au

[o:]


ow

[au]

Out

Law

aw


ou

Brown

Sea

ea

[i:]


ow

[ou]

Window

Meet

ee


oa

[ou]

Oak

New

ew

[ju:]


ai+r

[εә]

Chair

Neutral

eu


ee+r

[iә]

Engineer

They

ey

[ei]


ou+r

[auә]

Our

Point

oi

[oi]


oo+r

[o:]

Door

Boy

oy







Cc

[s] before e,i,y

City, pencil, cycle


Th

[θ]

Thick, thin

[k]

Cat, come


[∂]

This, than

Gg

[dз]

Gin, gentle, gym


wh

[h]

before o

Who

[g]

Garden, bag


[w]

When, why

ch

[t∫]

Chair


wr

[r]

Write

tch

Match


- ssion


[∫n]

Mission

sh

[∫]

She


- tion

Dictation

qu

[kw]

Quick


- sion

[зn]

Revision

ng

[ŋ]

Long


- ture

[∫ә]

Picture

nk

[ŋk]

Thank






1

The Noun

1

Proper nouns (жалқы)

Peter, Smith, Teddy, Moscow, the Volga, “New Times”


Common nouns (жалпы)

Boy, snow, dog, school, friendship

2

Concrete nouns (деректi)

Mary, cat, table, butter, book


Abstract nouns (дерексiз)

Love, idea, cold, meeting, summer

3

Animate nouns (жанды)

Jane, cat, girl, horse


Inanimate nouns (жансыз)

River, table, iron


Number



Singular

Plural

1

- s

Book

Boy

Books

Boys

2

- es

Bus

Bush

Speech

Match

Box

Buses

Bushes

Speeches

Matches

Boxes

3

- es

Potato

Tomato

Potatoes

Tomatoes

4

- s

Photo

Piano

Zero

Rhino

Photos

Pianos

Zeros

Rhinos

5

y → i

Army

Strawberry

Armies

Strawberries

6

f → v

Leaf

Knife

Leaves

Knives

7

-

Man

Woman

Child

Foot

Tooth

Goose

Mouse

Sheep

Deer

Men

Women

Children

Feet

Teeth

Geese

Mice

Sheep

Deer

2


Word order (сөз тәртiбi)



1

2

3

4

Adverbial modifier

Пысықтауыш

Subject


Бастауыш

Predicate


Баяндауыш

Object


Толықтауыш

Adverbial modifier

Пысықтауыш






In summer

Peter

wrote

them letters

very often







Анықтауыш (Attribute) өзi анықтайтын сөзден бұрын (предлогсыз) немесе кейiн (предлогпен) келедi

I like your dog. That dog of yours is very good.



Сұраулы сөйлем түрлерi


Түрi

Жасалуы

Мысал



1

General question

(жалпы)


Pr1+Sub.+Pr2?

Does he read English books?

Сan you read English books?

Is he a good people?



2

Special question

(арнайы)


1


Qu.+Pr1+Sub.+Pr2?

Where do you live?

What can you do?

Where is he?

2

Qu.+Pr ?

(Бастауышқа немесе оның анықтауышына)

Who is reading a book?

Whose book is lying on the table?



Alternative

question

(балама)

Gq1+ or+Gq2

Is it a book or a copybook?

Do you go to the cinema or to the theatre?


4

Disjunctive

question

(демеулiктi)

1

Af.st,+Pr1+not+Per.Pr?

He is reading, isn't he?

2

Neg.st,+Pr1+Per.Pr?

He has a book, hasn't he?



Pr1 – 1.көмекшi етiстiк Af.st – болымды сөйлем

2.модальды етiстiк Neg.st – болымсыз сөйлем

3. байланыстырушы етiстiк Per.Pr – жiктеу есiмдiгi

11


Non-finite forms of the verb


Infinitive (to _)

Iс-әрекеттi бiлдiретiн қ етiстiктiң түрi

1

Indefinite Infinitive

V1

I want to speak to him

I can read this story

2

Passive Infinitive

to be+V3

Peter is glad to be invited by me

3

Perfect Infinitive

to have+V3

I am glad to have spoken to him

4

Continuous Infinitive

to be+V4

It was pleasant to be driving the car again

5

Perfect Continuous Infinitive

to have been+V4

They seem to have been reading this book for a long time


Gerund

Iс-әрекеттi бiлдiретiн жајқсыз етiстiктiң түрi

1

Indefinite

Gerund

V1+ing

Stark sat without speaking

2

Perfect Gerund

having+V3

He felt better for having written the letter

3

Passive Gerund

being+V3

I like being invited to their house


Participle I

Iс-әрекеттi бiр заттың немесе әрекеттiң сипаты ретiнде көрсететiн жақсыз етiстiктiң түрi

1

Indefinite

Participle I

V4

The street was full of people, laughing and going home

2

Perfect Participle I

having+V3

Having read the book I gave it to Peter

3

Passive Participle I

being+V3

Cecilia had heard very little being absorbed in her own reflections

4

Perfect Passive Participle I

having been+V3

I am going the same day myself having been detained here two days


Participle II


1

Participle II

V3

The boy invited by Peter is a friend of mine

Зат есiмнiң жасалу жолдары


I. Префикстер арқылы

1

Dis -

Disbelief

5

Sub -

Subway

2

Mis -

Misbehavior

6

Re -

Recount

3

Co -

Copilot

7

Auto -

Autobiography

4

Counter-

Counteraction

8

Vice -

Vice -president



II. Суффикстер арқылы

Түбiр зат есiмнен

Түбiр сын есiмнен

1

- er

Londoner

1

- ness

Happiness

2

- ess

Actress

2

- ty

Property

3

- hood

Childhood

3

- dom

Freedom

4

- ship

Friendship



Түбiр етiстiктен

5

- (e)ry

Chemistry


6

- let

Booklet

1

- er(or)

Worker, actor

7

- ette

Kitchenette

2

- ant(ent)

Assistant

8

- ite

Muskovite

3

- (a)tion

Organization

9

- (i)an

Russian

4

- ing

Building

10

- ese

Chinese

5

- ment

Movement

11

- ist

Violonist

6

- al

Refusal

12

-ism

Heroism

7

- ee

Addressee




III. Бiрiгу арқылы

IV. Конверсия

(сөз табының өзгеруi)

1

Зат е.+зат е.

Rainbow

1

to doubt

doubt

2

Сын е.+зат е.

Blackboard

2

to love

love

3

Yстеу+зат е.

Afternoon




4

Етiстiк+зат е.

Knitwear

1

comic

(a) comic

5

Зат е.+етiстiк

Handshake

2

Rich

(the)rich


3

Сын есiмнiң жасалуы


I. Префикс арқылы

1

Un -

Unfair

8

Anti -

Antifascist

2

Im -

Impossible

9

Inter -

International

3

Dis -

Dishonest

10

Post -

Post-war

4

Super -

Supernatural

11

Uni -

Unilateral

5

Sub -

Subconscious

12

Bi -

Bilingual

6

Ultra -

Ultra-violet

13

Multi -

Multilateral

7

Hyper -

Hupercritical

14

Poly -

Polysyllabic


II.Суффикс арқылы

Түбiр зат есiмнен

Түбiр етiстiктен

1

- ful

Useful

1

- able

Readable

2

- less

Helpless

2

- y

Sleepy

3

- ly

Friendly

3

- ive

Attractive

4

- y

Creamy




5

- ish

Foolish




6

- al

Musical




7

- ous

Dangerous





Бiрiгу арқылы

1

Зат е.+ прич 1

Heart-breaking

2

Сын е.+ прич 1

Good-looking

3

Зат е.+ прич 2

Hand-made

4

Зат е.+ сын е

Sea-green


Degrees of comparison




Positive

Comparative

Superlative

1

Бiр буынды

strong

stronger

(the) strongest

2

Кей екi буынды сөз

easy

clever

narrow

easier

cleverer

narrower

(the) easiest

(the) cleverest

(the) narrowest

3

Көп буынды

interesting

more interesting

(the) most interesting

4

Ерекше жағдай

good

bad

little

many (much)

better

worse

less

more

(the) best

(the) worst

(the) least

(the) most

Қолданылуы

As ....as

... than

the ...


He is tall

She is as tall as her brother

He is taller than his sister

He is the tallest in the family

4

Passive –тегi етiстiктiң шақтық формаларын да осылай жасап шығуға болады.

Ескерту: Passive –те Continuous тобында Future\Future – in the Past жоқ. Ал, Perfect Continuous тобы мүлде болмайды


Passive Voice be+V3


Indefinite

( - )

Continuous

(be + V4)

Perfect

(have+V3)

Present

(V1)

be invited

be being invited

have been invited

Past

(V2)

was\were invited

was\were being invited

had been invited

Future

(shall\will+

V1)

shall\will

be invited


shall\will have been invited

Future – in the Past

(should\

would+V1)

should\would

be invited


should\would have been invited


Past Continuous Passive


V2 be + V4 be+V3 бұдан be2 +be4 +V3


Яғни was\were being invited



“To be”, “to have” етiстiктерiнiң осы шақта жiктелуi


Pronouns

“to be”

“to have”

Singular

1 person

I

аm

have

2 person

You

аre

have

3 person


He

She

It


іs


has

Plural

1 person

We

аre

have

2 person

You

аre

have

3 person


They

аre

have


9

The finite forms of the verb


Active Voice


Indefinite

( - )

Continuous

(be + V4)

Perfect

(have+V3)

Perfect Continuous

(have been+V4)

Present

(V1)

invite

be inviting

have invited

have been inviting

Past

(V2)

invited

was\were inviting

had invited

had been inviting

Future

(shall\will+

V1)

shall\will

invite

shall\will

be inviting

shall\will

have invited

shall\will have been inviting

Future – in the Past

(should\

would+V1)

should\

would

invite

should\

would

be inviting

should\

would

have invited

should\

would

have been inviting

Етiстiктiң шақтық формалары белгiлi бiр қағидаға сүйенiп жасалады.

V1 - V2 - V3 - V4

to invite - invited – invited – inviting


Past Perfect


V2 have+V3 бұдан have2+ V3 , яғни had invited



Future Perfect Continuous

shall\will+V1 have+V3 be + V4 бұдан


shall\will have been inviting

Ескерту: көмекшi етiстiк алдыңғы етiстiктiң формасына ауысады, ал соңғы етiстiк сөйлемдегi толық мағыналы негiзгi етiстiк

8

The Pronouns


Personal Pronoun

Possessive Pronoun

Reflexive Pronoun

Nominative case

Objective case

Main form

Absolute form

Singular

1 Per

I

me

my

mine

myself

2 Per

you

you

your

yours

yourself

3 Per

he

she

it

him

her

it

his

her

its

his

hers

its

himself

herself

itself

Plural

1 Per

we


us

our

ours

ourselves

2 Per

you


you

your

yours

yourselves

3 Per

they


them

their

theirs

themselves

Қолдануы

Атау септiгiнде

Басқа септiк-терде

Зат есiмнен


Бұрын

Кейiн

Мысалы

I wrote him a letter

We met them at the theatre

This is my book

and this is yours

He washed himself


Indefinite and negative pronouns

1

Some, somebody, someone, something

... used in the affirmative sentences

I have some English books

2

Any, anybody, anyone, anything

... used in the interrogative and negative (...not) sentences

Have you any English books?

I don't have any English books

3

No, nobody, no one, nothing

... used in the negative sentences

I have no English books


Demonstrative pronouns



Singular

Plural


1

This

These


2

That

Those



I have this book and you have that one

These shoes don't fit. Show me those ones

5


The numeral



Cardinal

numerals

(есептiк)


Ordinal numerals

(реттiк)


1-12


1-3

1


one

the first

2


two

the second

3


three

the third





4


four



- th

жалға-

нады

the fourth

12


twelve

the twelfth


13-19


13

- teen

жалға

нады

thirteen

the thirteenth

14

fourteen

the fourteenth

19

nineteen

the nineteenth


20, 30,....90


Y→ie


20

- ty

жалға-

нады

twenty

the twentieth

30

thirty

the thirtieth

90

ninety

the ninetieth






21


twenty-one


the twenty-first

22


twenty-two


the twenty-second

I. 100 – a hundred 1000 – a thousand

615 – six hundred and fifteen

2006 – two thousand and six

5700 – five thousand , seven hundred

2753000 – two million , seven hundred and fifty three

thousand

II. 8.56 – eight point fifty-six


III. 2\7 – two sevenths


IV. In 17 87 - in seventeen eighty-nine

In 19 00 – in nineteen hundred

Жылды оқығанда екi саннан бөлiп оқиды

6

Етiстiктiң түрлерi



Түрi

Етiстiк

Мысал

Қолданылуы

1

Негiзгi

speak

take

Mary speaks English

I took the book from the library yesterday


Cөйлемдегi негiзгi әрекеттi бiлдiредi

2

Көмекшi

do



be

have

shall

will

Do you speak English?

He doesn't speak Russian

I am speaking

She has spoken

I shall go there

He will have asked

Болымсыз сөйлем

сұраулы сөйлем,

шақтық формаларды жасауға көмектеседi

3

Байланыс-тырушы

be

Peter is a good people


4

Модальды

can\could

may\might




must


should

ought to

She can read

May I open the window?

He may come back tomorrow

You must come to school on time

You should (ought to) be more polite to him

You should (ought to) have tidied up your room

Мүмкiндiк

Рұқсат


Болжам


Мiндет


Ақыл-кеңес


Ескерту


бiлдiредi


Етiстiктiң формалары



Infinitive

V1

Past Indefinite

V2

Participle II

V3

Participle I

V4


Regular

(дұрыс)


- ed жалғанады

-ing жалғанады





(to) ask

ask-ed

ask-ed

ask-ing

(to) answer

answer-ed

answer-ed

answer-ing


Irregular

(бұрыс)


арнайы кестеде берiледi

-ing жалғанады

(to) be

was\were

been

be-ing

(to) write

wrote

written

writ-ing

(to) speak

spoke

spoken

speak-ing

(to) read

read

read

read-ing

7

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