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Modals

Урок 47. Английский язык 9 класс ФГОС

В этот раз Гарри решил познакомить нас с различными взглядами людей на реалити-шоу и заодно повторить модальные глаголы. Далее в уроке рассматриваются значения модальных глаголов и возможные ситуации их употребления.

Конспект урока "Modals"

Henry: Do you like to watch reality TV? Which shows do you enjoy? Can you learn something from these shows or are they just entertaining?

Let’s read the article about the reality TV.

REALITY TV

“Reality is the best business model for TV.” (media expert)

Reality TV started in Europe at a time when local TV networks weren’t able to buy foreign shows. And because writers and actors were expensive, they also couldn’t develop shows of their own. Then Bob Geldof of the British television company Planet 24 had a bright idea of filming ordinary people in out of the ordinary situations. Geldof knew that people love seeing themselves on TV, so he thought there had to be a lot of people willing to try it. Why should producers pay for actors and writers when they could use real people with real emotions?

“I didn’t know we actually had to survive.” (contestant, Expedition Robinson, Sweden)

Expedition Robinson was Geldof’s idea. A group of contestants and a television crew go to a desert island. The contestants have to survive, and the television audience can watch their struggle. Geldof couldn’t sell his idea in England, but an adventurous Swedish producer bought it. Now known as Survivor it has become popular all over the world.

“I can’t act, I can’t sing, I can’t dance – but people don’t care.” (contestant, Big Brother 2)

Big Brother, first produced in the Netherlands in 1999, was another surprise hit. In this show, a group of strangers had to stay in a house for 100 days. They couldn’t go out or talk to anyone outside the group and cameras and microphones recorded everything that happened. Viewers were glued to the screens. Today, Big Brother is the most successful reality show in the world. Its popular version in Russia is called Dom 2.

Look at the underlined words. How do we call them in English?

Yes, they are modal verbs.

In this lesson we’ll learn the following:

•        what modal verbs are;

•        why they are different to normal verbs;

•        why they are important and difficult;

•        different meanings of modal verbs;

•        how to use them correctly in English.

So, what are modal verbs?

Modal verbs are the verbs which add meaning to another verb.

There are nine basic modal verbs in English. They are: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must.

There are other verbs which behave like modal verbs in some ways although they don’t have all the features of a full modal verb, for example: ought to, have to, need.

How are modal verbs different to normal verbs?

They are different in several ways:

·                   Modal verbs are always followed by the infinitive (without to).

You should watch this programme.

·                   Modal verbs come before the subject in questions and are followed by “not” in negations.

Should I watch this programme?

You shouldn’t watch this programme.

·                   Modal verbs have only one form.

It could be the best of the seasons.

NOT It coulds be the best of the seasons.

Generally, if you use a modal, it can have either a present or a future meaning. Often, we use other words or phrases to show the time.

•        The show might start at 12.00 this afternoon. (We understand that this is in the future only because of “this afternoon”.)

There are exceptions!

Could is used as the past simple of can, and would can have a past meaning in very few situations, but generally modals don’t have past or future forms.

You can sometimes give a modal verb a past meaning by using have+ V3 after the modal verb.

He might have overslept – We are trying to guess why he is late, and what has happened to him (in the past).

You shouldn’t have said thatYou said something rude or inappropriate, and now I’m criticising you for what you did (in the past).

Why are modal verbs important?

You could hardly say or write anything in English without using modal verbs. Modal verbs are used to express many, many different meanings

•        Giving advice: I think you should buy a new TV set.

•        Talking about possibility: She can sing but she can’t dance.

•        Asking permission: May I take this seat?

•        Expressing certainty: He must be home now. The lights are on.

Now let's look at all those meanings.

To express the ABILITY of doing something we use modal verb can and modal expression be able to and could or was/were be able to (in the past).

I can buy tickets on my way home.

Are you able to drive a car?

They can’t go out or talk to anyone outside the group.

Before she took lessons she could sing, but she wasn’t able to dance very well.

Another function of modal verbs is POSSIBILITY. Possibility is a ‘yes/no’ quality. Either something is possible, or it isn’t.

He can win the race. (90% certain)

They could/may/might still be at school. (50% certain.)

·                   Could have done is used to say that we had a possibility to do smth but didn’t do it.

We could have gone to the restaurant yesterday but we decided to stay at home.

·                   May/might have done

He may/might have seen to Ann yesterday. (Perhaps he saw her yesterday)

CERTAINTY is also a ‘yes/no’ quality. Either you’re certain that something is true, or you aren’t.

·                   To say you are certain about something in the future, use will or won’t:

It’ll be hot tomorrow. (= I’m sure about this)

There won’t be a lot of people there in November (= I’m certain)

·                   If you are certain about something in the present, the most common verb to use is must:

They must be very rich – their house is huge! (= I’m sure they’re rich, otherwise they wouldn’t be able to have such a big house.)

·                   If you are certain about something in the past, the most common modal to use is must have done:

She must have been exhausted after doing shopping all day. (= I’m sure she was exhausted, because anyone would be exhausted after shopping for such a long time)

Talking about PROBABILITY is nice and simple, because there’s only one modal verb you can use: should/shouldn’t:

Your delivery should arrive in the next 2-3 days (= It will probably arrive within this time, 90% certain)

You shouldn’t have to wait long (You probably won’t have to wait long)

·                   Probability is always in the future – you can’t talk about probability in the present or the past.

GIVING ADVICE or RECOMMENDATION or expressing the DUTY (совет, рекомендация, долг) we use the following modal verbs:

 You shouldn’t stay up too late. (general advice; I advise you)

You ought to respect the elderly people. (it’s the right thing to do)

You must revise for the test. (strong advice)

·                   To criticize someone else’s actions or to talk about mistakes in the past use should have done.

You should have gone to the Eiffel Tower while you were in Paris. = It’s a pity that you didn’t go.

He shouldn’t have watched TV so much. = He watched a lot, that’s why he got bad eyesight.

We use modal verbs to talk about OBLIGATIONS – things you cannot choose not to do. You have no choice.

·                   Must is used when you have a strong feeling about the obligation.

I must go on a diet. (It’s my decision. I say so.)

·                   Have to is used when the obligation depends on rules or laws.

I have to go on a diet. (the doctor says so)

·                   Mustn’t means that something is forbidden – you cannot do it.

They mustn’t leave the house (it’s forbidden; you can’t do it)

·                   Don’t have to means that something is not necessary. If you don’t have to do something, you can choose to do it or not.

I don’t have to finish it today (I can leave it until tomorrow if I want to)

For giving PERMISSION we normally use modal verbs can/may.

You can make a phone call here. (informal)

You may make a phone call here. (formal, probably written)

Could you turn on the TV? – Yes, I can. Yes, I may. (Not: Yes, I could.)

·                   When refusing permission can’t/ mustn’t/ may not are used.

I’m afraid you can’t/mustn’t see him. (informal)

You may not walk on the grass. (formal, written notice)

There are several modal verbs that help us to make a REQUEST.

Bill to his friend: Can I use your phone? (informal)

Bill to a stranger: Could I use your phone? (very polite)

Bill to a police officer: May/Might I use your phone? (formal/very formal)

·                   Asking somebody else to do smth for you:

Will/Can you help me with the cooking? (very friendly; informal)

Would/Could you send this e-mail? (polite)

OFFERS and SUGGESTIONS

You look tired. I’ll do the house for you. (I’m willing to do sth for you; informal)

Shall/Can/ Could I carry this bag for you?

We can/could go for a walk tonight.

Would you like me to do anything for you?

Shall I explain it again? (asking for suggestions or instructions)

PROHIBITION

can't/ mustn't

This structures show that you are not allowed to do smth/ it is against the rules/law to do smth.

You can’t/ mustn’t walk your dog here.

You may not use your cell phone here. (formal, probably written).

As you can see, each modal verb can express many different meanings.

Hopefully, now you understand what modal verbs are, how they are different to normal verbs, why they are important for your English.

That`s all for today.

Join us at our grammar lessons at videouroki.net.

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