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Clauses of purpose, cause and result

Урок 27. Английский язык 9 класс ФГОС

В этом уроке учащиеся знакомятся с построением придаточных предложений цели и результата, а также с союзами, которыми они вводятся.

Конспект урока "Clauses of purpose, cause and result"

Hello, guys! Welcome to Grammar Zone!

In this lesson we’re going to talk about clauses of result and purpose.

I’m sure that most of the students feel nervous before, during and even after exams!!!

Last year I was so nervous when my exam results arrived that I didn’t want to open the envelope. Allan and Kate were with me. It was an important day therefore I needed their support. Kate said that I didn’t need to worry. But Katie always gets such good marks that she doesn’t understand what it feels like to fail. I never do well in exams. My problem is I get nervous and as a result I can’t think properly.

But this year my Maths teacher, Mr Brown, helped me. He gave me tips on how to study and how to answer exam questions properly. He is such an amazing teacher that there isn’t anyone in my class who doesn’t like him.

Anyway I finally opened the envelope. I had passed all my subjects! Not only that; I got an “A” in Maths! It was such a high mark that I couldn’t believe my eyes. I was so happy!

The underlined parts of the sentences are the clauses of result.

They are used to express the result of a situation or action.

It was such a high mark that I couldn’t believe my eyes.

It was such a high mark is the main clause.

that I couldn’t believe my eyes is the clause of result.

What words or expressions are the clauses of result introduced by? Find in the text.

that (after such / so…), (and) as a result, therefore.

such a(an) + (adjective) + singular countable noun

He is such an amazing teacher that there isn’t anyone in my class who doesn’t like him.

Helen was such a kind person that I was sad when she moved to another town.

It was such a long and boring lesson that I started yawning.

such a(an) + (adjective) + uncountable or plural noun

It is such exciting news that I can’t keep it to myself.

Katie always gets such good marks that she doesn’t understand what it feels like to fail.

They were such well-behaved children that everyone loved them.

so + adjective / adverb

Last year I was so nervous when my exam results arrived that I didn’t want to open the envelope.

I’m so hungry that I could eat a horse.

The film was so good that I saw it twice.

so + adjective + a(an) + noun

It was so nice a day that we went to the beach. (not usual)

Such is also used with a lot of:

There was such a lot of smoke that I couldn’t see.

I’ve got such a lot of friends that I don’t have time to see them all.

So is also used with much/many/few or little:

We have so many pets that sometimes it’s really noisy.

He’s got so little patience with children that he can’t be a teacher.

So and Such can be used without that.

As a result, / therefore / consequently + clause

I missed the bus and as a result I was late to school.

They were very cheap shoes. Therefore, she bought three pairs.

Henry doesn’t listen. Consequently, he makes mistakes.

Clauses of result follow the rule of the sequence of tenses.

When the verb of the main clause is in a present or future form, the verb of the clause of result is also in a present.

I have such a lot of money that I don’t know what to do with it.

When the verb in the main clause is in a past form, the verb of the clause of the result is also in a past form.

He was so hot and sunny that he got sunburnt.

Henry: Mr Brown, my Maths teacher, agreed to tell you about the tips on how to study and get ready for exams.

Mr Brown:

Exam time means study time! It’s very important to get the most out of your time when you sit down with your books. Here’s how: find a quiet place to study so that you’ll be able to concentrate, and switch off your mobile phone so as not to be disturbed while you are working.

Many students make a “to do” list before they study with the aim of reminding themselves how much time they should spend on each topic.

Another good idea is to give yourself a reward each time you achieve a goal in order to stay motivated.

If you are studying with friends, agree that you will only talk about the subject you are studying so as not to waste time.

Finally, remember to take regular breaks. You need a short break every 30 minutes or so to avoid getting too tired.

Henry: Hopefully, the information will be useful and helpful to you.

Now we’re going to look at another type of clauses – clauses of purpose.

The clauses of purpose are used to express the purpose of an action in the main clause; that is, they explain why something is done.

Find a quiet place to study so that you’ll be able to concentrate.

Find a quiet place to study is the main clause.

So that you’ll be able to concentrate is the clause of purpose.

Find in the text the words or expressions which the clauses of purpose are introduced by.

So that, so as (not) to, with the aim of, in order to, to avoid.

Let’s start with TO-infinitive. It’s often used to express purpose:

Ben gets up early to exercise before work.

He has to go to the shop to get new trainers.

She took a camera with her to take some photos.

so as to / in order to + to-infinitive. (Used in formal situations)

You have to be 18 years old so as to apply for a driving license.

He left early so as not to miss the train.

I’m saving money in order to buy a new tablet.

She put on a raincoat in order not to get wet.

so that + can/will (for present or future reference)

Grandad’s learning how to send emails so that he can write to his grandchildren.

I’ll leave early so that I won’t need to rush.

He chained the dog up so that it won’t run away.

so that + could/would (for past reference)

I gave Mary my sweater so that she could keep warm.

She finished her homework quickly so that she could watch her favourite show.

He got a taxi so that he wouldn’t be late.

with a view to / with the aim of + -ing form (used in formal situations)

He saved money with a view to buy a car.

He went to Oxford university with the aim of obtaining a degree in Medicine.

in case + present (present or future reference)

I’ll take some sandwiches in case I get hungry. (NOT in case I’ll get hungry)

in case + past (past reference)

I took some water in case I got thirsty.

Clauses of purpose follow the rule of the sequence of tenses.

When the verb of the main clause is in a present or future form, the verb of the clause of result is in a present form.

I’ll bring a ball in case they want to play a game.

When the verb in the main clause is in a past form, the verb of the clause of the result is also in a past form.

She gave him her phone number so that he could ring her.

Now it’s time to practice the rule.

Find a mistake in each sentence.

1. Why are you in such a hurry?

The incorrect word is so. So is used before adjectives or adverbs. Hurry is a noun.

2. Harold studied hard so as not to fail his Science test.

The incorrect word is failing. It’s a gerund. So as not to is used with the infinitive.

3. It’s such strong coffee that I can’t drink it.

The incorrect word is a. The word coffee is an uncountable noun. We normally don’t use indefinite article a(an) before uncountable nouns.

4. I was ill. Therefore / As a result, I didn’t go to school.

The incorrect expression is in order to. In order to introduces the clause of purpose. In this sentence we have the clause of result.

5. I will call you in case I am late.

The verb of the main clause is in the future. The verb of the clause of result must be in a present form, NOT in the future.

6. I took the bus today in order/so as not to waste time.

The incorrect expression is so that. So that is followed by the clause, NOT the infinitive.

7. There is such a lot of noise that I can’t work.

The incorrect word is many. 1. Many is used with SO – so many … (that). 2. Noise is an uncountable noun. We can’t use it with many anyway.

That`s all for today.

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