Меню
Видеоучебник

Word formation. Compound adjectives

Урок 23. Английский язык 9 класс ФГОС

Эту тему вам нужно обязательно изучить, чтобы игра слов не сыграла с вами злую шутку. В этом уроке учащиеся познакомятся с разными видами составных прилагательных. Грамматический практикум является замечательным дополнением к этому видеоуроку.

Конспект урока "Word formation. Compound adjectives"

Hello, guys! Welcome to Grammar Zone!

Today we have another video on word formation. And we are going to talk about compound adjectives.

A compound adjective is sometimes called a hyphenated adjective. What are they?

Let's look at the following sentences:

I saw a man-eating alligator.

I saw a man eating alligator.

The first sentence contains a compound adjective.

The second sentence doesn't.

Have these sentences got the same meaning?

No, they don’t!

Look at these pictures.

I saw a man-eating alligator.

We are describing the alligator. What type of alligator is it? It is one that eats men.

I saw a man eating alligator.

This sentence without the hyphen sounds like A MAN is eating an alligator.

(MAN is the subject, EATING is the verb, ALLIGATOR is the object or thing that is being eaten).

As you can see, the hyphen (or lack of it) makes a big difference in the meaning of the sentence.

First, let’s make a quick review of Adjectives.

What is an adjective?

An adjective is a word that describes something.

A new house (new is an adjective because it describes the house. What is the house? – new)

Blue jeans (blue is an adjective because it describes jeans. What colour are the jeans? – Blue)

But sometimes we use more than one adjective to describe something.

In general, we put a hyphen between two or more words (before a noun) when we want them to act as a single idea (adjective) that describes something.

She can’t walk in high-heeled shoes.

High-heeled is an adjective (used to describe the shoes). We use a hyphen to connect the word high with heeled to show that it is one adjective (or one idea).

This adjective with two words joined by the hyphen is called a compound adjective.

Some more examples of compound adjectives are:

Our office is in a twenty-storey building.

I have just finished reading a 300-page book.

This jacket is old-fashioned.

People in Africa are usually dark-skinned.

There are many types of Compound Adjectives. Here is a list of the most common types:

Periods of Time

When we have compound adjectives using a number + a time period, that word referring to a time period is in singular form and is joined to the number with a hyphen.

I work eight hours every day – I work an eight-hour day.

We went on a tour for five days – He went on a five-day tour.

Let’s take a break of ten minutes. – Let’s take a ten-minute break.

My son is four years old. – I have a four-year-old son.

Notice how we normally write the number as a word!

Adverbs and Compound Adjectives

Adverbs modify a verb.

She speaks fluently.

How does she speak? – Fluently. Fluently is an adverb that modifies (or describes) the verb.

Adverbs can also be used to modify an adjective.

It is very cold today. (Very is an adverb)

The teacher is extremely patient. (Extremely is an adverb)

Notice how we do not put a hyphen between an adverb and an adjective (not even before a noun).

Adverb + Past Participle

However, when we have an adverb + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

They are well-behaved children.

She is a well-known actress.

He used to be short-haired when he was young.

Noun + Past Participle

When we have a noun + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

We should start using wind-powered generators to cut costs.

I love eating sun-dried raisins.

Noun + Present Participle

When we have a noun + present participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

I bought some mouth-watering strawberries.

That was a record-breaking jump.

It was quite a thought-provoking book.

Noun + Adjective

When we have a noun + adjective, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

We had dinner at a world-famous Italian restaurant.

There’s nothing better than drinking an ice-cold lemonade on a hot summer day.

These fat-free cookies are delicious!

Adjective + Noun

When we have an adjective + noun, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

It was a last-minute decision.

We watched the full-length version of the movie.

Adjective + Past Participle

When we have an adjective + past participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

That is an old-fashioned dress

Reptiles are cold-blooded creatures.

Adjective + Present Participle

When we have an adjective + present participle, we put a hyphen between the two words to make it a compound adjective.

Who’s that good-looking guy over there?

This long-lasting makeup will keep you looking lovely day and night.

Learning a language seems to be a never-ending process.

How do we know when to put a hyphen?

Use a hyphen when the compound adjective comes BEFORE the noun it modifies, but not when it comes AFTER the noun.

This is a world-famous museum.

This museum is world famous.

We walked into a brightly-lit room.

We walked into a room that was brightly lit.

It was quite a thought-provoking book.

The book was quite thought provoking.

Now it’s time to practice the rule.

Match each word in A with a word in B to make compound adjectives.

1. short-haired

2. full-time

3. good-looking

4. tight-fitting

5. sun-tanned

6. long-legged

7. deep-sea

8. smoke-free

9. blue-eyed

10. five-day

Complete the sentences with these compound adjectives.

1.                 I have never tried deep-sea diving; I must learn it soon.

2.                 This is a smoke-free public area; please follow the rules.

3.                 Paula is looking for a full-time job.

4.                 Soldiers in the army are normally short-haired.

5.                 I don’t like tight-fitting jeans. I prefer them to be a bit baggy.

6.                 My brother is really good-looking. All the girls in his class fancy him.

7.                 She has just spent two weeks lying on the beach in Spain. She’s very sun-tanned.

8.                 There is a long-legged spider in the bath!

9.                 It’s quite unusual for blue-eyed people to have black hair.

10.             He went on a five-day trip.

That’s all for today!

If you need to find a well explained answer on any subject at a record-breaking speed, then join us at videouroki.net.

1501

Комментарии 0

Чтобы добавить комментарий зарегистрируйтесь или на сайт

Вы смотрели