Russia is a huge and wonderful country.
It has a great variety of landscapes. There are vast plains, thick forests and deep valleys. There are lots of high mountains and over two million rivers in the country.
Despite the economic problems that Russia is facing nowadays, the country remains one of the leading countries in the world.
So, today in the lesson we will:
● discuss the geographical position and climate of Russia;
● talk about Russian population, landmarks, cities and villages;
● put the knowledge into practice.
First, let’s talk about the geographical position of Russia.
Russia, or the Russian Federation, is the largest country in the world. It’s located in Europe and Asia. The total area of Russia is over 17 million square kilometres.
Russia is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans. The country is washed by the Arctic Ocean in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the Atlantic Ocean in the west and in the south.
The Russian Federation borders on Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. It’s located in the far western part of the country. The city stands on the Moscow River.
There are three main mountain chains in this country: the Caucasus, the Urals and the Altai.
Russia is rich in rivers and lakes. The longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Yenisei and the Ob in Asia. The deepest lake in Russia and in the world is Lake Baikal.
Now let’s read the letter from our pen friend Ivan.
“Hi, I’m Ivan. I live in Russia and I would like to tell you about the climate of this country.
Weather conditions in Russia vary in different regions considerably. It has every possible climate from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the west, for example, the climate is usually mild and wet. The southern parts of the country have warm temperatures all year round, but the northern parts have very cold winters.
In the middle of the country the climate is usually continental. Winters are cold, windy and snowy, and summers are hot and dry.”
– There is a common belief that Russia is the country of changeable weather conditions and extreme climate.
– Oh, I absolutely support this idea!
– Guys, now let’s listen to Inna. She would like to tell you about the population of Russia.
“Hi, I’m Inna and I live in Russia. The population of Russia is more than 145 million people. There are a lot of different nationalities in Russia. Over 80 percent are Russians themselves, while 20 percent of population consists of various nationalities – Belarusians, Tatars, Armenians and so on. That’s why people here speak different languages, but the official language is Russian.
Most of Russians are open people. They love to sit down for a nice long chat. They enjoy having parties and receiving guests. According to old traditions, a guest should always be welcomed with the symbol of life-giving food – bread and salt.
It is widely known that Russian people are hospitable and kind.”
We’ve talked about the geographical position, climate and population of Russia. Now…
Answer the questions!
1. What is the official name of the country?
2. What is the total area of Russia?
3. What is special about the geographical position of Russia?
4. How many seas and oceans wash Russia?
5. What is the capital of the country?
6. What river is the longest in Europe?
7. What is the deepest lake in Russia?
8. What can you say about weather conditions in Russia?
9. What is the population of Russia?
10. How can you describe Russian people in two words?
Let’s check the right answers!
1. The official name of the country is the Russian Federation.
2. The total area of Russia is over 17 million square kilometres.
3. Russia is located in Europe and Asia.
4. Russia is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans.
5. The capital of the country is Moscow.
6. The longest river in Europe is the Volga.
7. The deepest lake in Russia is Lake Baikal.
8. Weather conditions in Russia vary in different regions considerably.
9. The population of Russia is more than 145 million people.
10. Russian people are hospitable and kind.
Now let’s talk about Russian cities, villages and landmarks!
There are many villages in Russia famous for their specific crafts. Painted boxes from Palekh, toys from Dymkovo, beautifully painted mugs, plates, spoons and other wooden tableware from Khokhloma are well-known all over the world.
Thousands of foreigners visit Russian villages to enjoy typical Russian log houses decorated with wood carving.
Foreign tourists also like to visit Russian cities. For example, they enjoy visiting Moscow, because it has lots of beautiful sights.
Red Square is considered to be the heart of Moscow. If you go to this square, you will be able to see: the Kremlin, the State History Museum, Lenin’s Mausoleum and Saint Basil’s Cathedral.
The Kremlin is the biggest active fortress in Europe. It’s surrounded by a strong wall with twenty towers. The most remarkable of them is the Spasskaja Tower.
The State History Museum has the country’s largest coin collection, the manuscripts and artworks of the 6th century.
Lenin’s Mausoleum is the place where the legendary Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin was embalmed.
Saint Basil’s Cathedral is the most ancient monument of Red Square. The building is shaped like the flame of a bonfire rising into the sky.
The two largest museums in Moscow are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery.
The second largest city in Russia is Saint Petersburg. There are lots of beautiful sights in this city. One of them is the Hermitage Museum. It contains the richest collection of pictures and pieces of applied art in the world.
There is also the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg. It’s a historic theatre of opera and ballet.
The other beautiful landmark in Saint Petersburg is Saint Isaac’s Cathedral. It was originally the largest cathedral in Russia.
The heart of Saint Petersburg is Palace Square.
Novosibirsk is the third largest city in Russia. It also has many places of interest. One of them is the State Art Museum, which has a big collection of paintings. There is also the State Opera and Ballet Theatre in Novosibirsk. You can also visit Lenin Square in Novosibirsk. Here you can find one of the largest Lenin statues in Russia.
Yekaterinburg is the fourth largest city in Russia. It has lots of historic and architectural sights. One of them is the Museum of Stone-cutting and Jewelry Art History. In this city you can find the State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre.
You can also visit Church upon the Blood in Yekaterinburg. It is decorated with gold-topped domes and glazed tiles.
There are a lot of other interesting cities and villages in Russia, which are definitely worth visiting.
We’ve talked about some Russian villages and cities and their landmarks.
Match the names of the landmarks with the pictures!
Let’s check the right answers!
1. The Mariinsky Theatre
2. The State Art Museum
3. Red Square
4. The Museum of Stone-cutting and Jewelry Art History
5. Saint Basil’s Cathedral
6. Church upon the Blood
7. The Spasskaja Tower
8. Palace Square
9. The Hermitage Museum
10. The Kremlin
Answer the question!
Where can you find these landmarks?
Write the name of the city under each picture!
Let’s check the right answers!
That’s all for now! In conclusion, I would like to say that Russia has always played an important role in the world. Its cultural heritage is enormous and priceless indeed. And Russian people keep it up and are very proud of it.