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Научная статья по английскому языку DISTANCE LEARNING


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Байтугелова Салтанат Бериковна, Общеобразовательная средняя школа № 72 имени Сагадата Нурмагамбетова город Шымкент



History of the development of distance learning

Distance learning forms

Integration of DL and other forms of education

Benefits of Distance Education



Distance learning (DL) is a set of technologies that ensure the delivery of the bulk of the studied material to the learners, the interactive interaction of learners and teachers in the learning process, providing learners with the opportunity to independently work on mastering the material being studied, as well as in the learning process.

Modern distance learning is based on the use of the following basic elements: information transmission media (mail, television, radio, information communication networks), methods depending on the technical environment of information exchange. Currently, interactive interaction with a student through information communication networks, from which the environment of Internet users is massively allocated, is promising. In 2003, the ADL initiative group began developing the SCORM distance interactive learning standard, which assumes the widespread use of Internet technologies.

The introduction of standards contributes to both the deepening of the requirements for the composition of distance learning, and the requirements for software. Currently, there are domestic software developments that are widely used by both domestic and foreign organizations that provide distance learning services.

Distance learning claims to be a special form of education (along with fulltime, part-time, evening, external studies). Using distance learning technologies allows:

-reduce the cost of training (no cost of renting premises,

-travel to the place of study, both students and teachers, etc.);

-train a large number of people;

-improve the quality of education through the use of modern tools, voluminous electronic libraries,

-create a unified educational environment (especially important for corporate training.

Distance learning is a modernized distance learning, plus communication with the teacher via the Internet. In the process of learning, you receive educational materials and assignments on your computer, perform tests and tests and send them to the teacher. You know your teacher and methodologist, you can ask them questions and get answers to them in a timely manner.

Distance learning is playing an increasing role in the modernization of education.

1. History of the development of distance learning

In Europe at the end of the 18th century, with the advent of a regular and accessible postal service, "correspondent training" arose. Students received educational materials by mail, corresponded with teachers and passed exams to a trusted person or in the form of scientific work. In Russia, this method appeared at the end of the 19th century. The beginning of the 20th century is characterized by rapid technological growth, the presence of the telegraph and telephone. But there are no reliable facts about their use in teaching. At the same time, the era of "correspondence education" continues, many universities around the world have been and are still leading it. The advent of radio and television has changed distance learning methods. It was a significant breakthrough, the audience of the training increased hundreds of times. Many people still remember the educational television programs that were broadcast since the 50s. However, television and radio had a significant drawback - the student did not have the opportunity to receive feedback. In 1969 the first distance education university in the world, the Open University of Great Britain, was opened in the UK, it was named so as to show its availability due to its low cost and lack of the need to frequent classroom classes. Other notable universities with distance learning programs abroad: University of South Africa, 1946. Fern Universität in Hagen (Germany, 1974).National University of Technology (USA, 1984) (postgraduate programs in engineering), Open University of Hagen (Germany), INTEC College of Cape Town (South Africa), Spanish National University of Distance Learning, British Open University Open School of Business, Australian Territorial Information Network.

In the late 1980s, the availability of personal computers offered new hope in simplifying and automating learning. Computer training programs appeared on the first computers in the form of various games. In 1988 the Soviet-American project "School E-mail" was implemented. The pioneers of satellite technologies for distance learning in the 1990s were the Knowledge International Association and its collective member, the Modern Academy for the Humanities. In Russia, the date of the official development of distance learning can be considered May 30, 1997, when the order № 1050 of the Ministry of Education of Russia was issued, which allows conducting an experiment of distance learning in education. In the 21st century, the availability of computers and the Internet makes the spread of distance learning even easier and faster. The Internet has become a huge breakthrough, far larger than radio and television. There was an opportunity to communicate and receive feedback from any student, wherever he is. The spread of the "fast Internet" made it possible to use "on-line" seminars (webinars) for training.

2. Forms of distance learning

Distance learning, carried out using computer telecommunications, has the following forms of training. Chat classes – training sessions carried out using chat technologies. Chat sessions are held synchronously, that is, all participants have simultaneous access to the chat. Within the framework of many distance educational institutions, there is a chat school in which the activities of distance teachers and students are organized with the help of chat rooms.

Web-based classes – distance lessons, conferences, seminars, business games, laboratory work, workshops and other forms of training conducted using telecommunications and other features of the World Wide Web.

For web lessons, specialized educational web forums are used – the form of user work on a specific topic or problem with the help of entries left on one of the sites with the corresponding program installed on it. Web forums differ from chat classes by the possibility of longer (many days) work and the asynchronous nature of the interaction between students and teachers. Teleconferences are usually held on the basis of mailing lists using e-mail. Educational teleconferencing is characterized by the achievement of educational objectives. There are also forms of distance learning, in which educational materials are sent by mail to the regions. Such a system is based on a teaching method that is called "Natural Learning Manner". Distance learning is a democratic, simple and free learning system. It was invented in Great Britain [source not specified 588 days] and is now actively used by residents of Europe for additional education. The student, constantly completing practical tasks, acquires stable automated skills. Theoretical knowledge is acquired without additional effort, organically woven into training exercises. The formation of theoretical and practical skills is achieved in the process of systematic study of materials and listening and repeating exercises on audio and video media after the speaker. There are many different ways of distance learning. For example, remote presence using the robot R.Bot 100. Now in one of the schools in Moscow, an experiment is underway on this type of distance learning. A disabled boy, being at home at a computer, hears, sees, talks with the help of a robot. The teacher asks him questions, he answers. In this case, the teacher also sees the student, because there is a monitor on the robot. At the same time, the boy has an almost complete impression that he is in the class with his peers in the lesson. During recess, he can also interact with his classmates. If the experiment is successful, it can open the way for a large project to introduce such a method of distance learning throughout Russia.

3. Integration of DL and other forms of education

As a rule, in the case of distance learning, students are not required to be in the classroom all the time. Most distance learning programs and courses still offer face-to-face classes on evenings or weekends. These classes are optional, but are usually extremely useful in developing practical skills for students. Also, a number of educational institutions use short (one-two-day) outreach schools, which allow students to gather at the weekend for group work.

With distance learning, a variety of methods of delivering educational information can be used. Several generations of the technologies used have already changed - from traditional print media to the most modern computer technologies (radio, television, audio / video broadcasts, audio / video conferencing, ELearning/online Learning, Internet conferences, Internet broadcasts).

However, until now, in many cases, despite the emergence of technological innovations, preference is given to simpler methods. For example, in India, the use of radio for distance learning is very popular, due to its availability to the majority of the population and the absence of the need for additional infrastructure, which makes it really open and accessible to the general population.

Many large companies are setting up distance learning centers in their structure in order to standardize, reduce the cost and improve the quality of training for their personnel. In fact, no modern company can live without it. Or, for example, Microsoft has created a large training portal for training its employees, users or buyers of its products, software developers. At the same time, some courses are provided free of charge or bundled with purchased software.

Online simulators and management games are becoming one of the original, but actively developing forms of distance learning. These are simulators of management of various vehicles, games that simulate the processes of management of various industries and businesses, global multiplayer economic games and business simulators that teach users the basics of management and provide basic management skills for both a small company and a transnational corporation.

How does distance learning differ from traditional distance learning? Distance learning is mainly based on the student's independent work. At the same time, communication takes place only between the student and his teacher, and often in writing. Distance learning focuses primarily on the collaborative learning method in groups. Joint group workshops, discussions and dialogues provide support and understanding to each group member. At the same time, the isolation that is characteristic of distance learning completely disappears.

The method of teaching in distance groups also contributes to the accumulation of knowledge, as students constantly exchange information. For this, there are special forums, chats, Internet conferences, where you can ask for advice or have a discussion with students who are studying the course at the same time as you. The virtual group gathers people who came here to learn how to work, improve their professional level of knowledge, get new qualifications, new skills necessary for your further professional development.

All distance group students have the same opportunities to actively participate in seminars. Discrimination on the basis of race or sex completely disappears in the atmosphere of interactive communication. As a result, the opinion of each student is taken into account and attracts everyone's attention. There is no need to travel to sessions and consultations. The indisputable advantage of distance learning is the - 381 - possibility of regular online consultations with the teacher and the teacher's individual approach to each student.

There is an opinion that when you study remotely, it is easy to write papers and take exams – I copied and sent them. This suffers more from traditional distance learning. In the distance courses, there are no jobs that involve cheating. If a work is sent that has been written off (it is very easy to determine), then it will not be accepted. This is specifically stated in the instructions. When passing exams, it makes no sense for distance students to write off, since there are no traditional tickets here. In distance programs, the most common tests and professionally oriented tasks, in solving which it is even recommended to use a textbook and additional materials. The tests, especially the final ones, are often asked to answer in real time, with each question "hanging" on the screen for a strictly defined time. Didn't fit, got into the textbook or lectures - the question disappeared and is considered unanswered. And what's the point in cheating? You want to get an education, not a piece of paper. Distance education is focused on people who want to get an education, not a crust.

4. Benefits of distance education

Distance education meets the principle of humanity, according to which no one should be deprived of the opportunity to study due to poverty, geographical or temporary isolation, social insecurity and the inability to attend educational institutions due to physical disabilities or employment in production and personal affairs. Education is available to all segments of the population without restriction due to health conditions.

- distance learning is cheaper than traditional;

- training is more effective – you yourself set the schedule of classes, the pace of training;

- distance learning is available from anywhere in the world – you just need to have a computer and Internet access;

- distance learning is promising – the share of distance technologies in education is growing from year to year!

- distance education provides an opportunity to study while working, i.e. applying their knowledge in practice.

- the most complete and up-to-date materials are provided for distance learning.

- distance education involves drawing up an individually convenient schedule for you.


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